Publications

How will PREPARED contribute to policy development and implementation, including the uptake of deliverables produced within the project by the intended end‐users? The end‐users being local mu-nicipalities and local utilities, regional and national authorities. But also how can PREPARED acceler-ate the uptake of new technologies, overall innovative approaches and decision support systems produced and demonstrated within PREPARED? How will PREPARED contribute to the development and implementation of EU policy within the Water Acquis? How will PREPARED help to achieve the Lisbon goals?

PREPARED is about the adaptation of the water supply and sanitation sector to cope with the impacts of climate change. It will do that by developing tools, approaches and decision support systems to assist water utilities. This provides guidance on how to deal with the uncertainty in the global IPCC scenarios to and the translation of scenarios to local level.

The PREPARED project aims to help utilities adapt their water and sanitation systems to cope with a changing climate. This aim raises several questions: What is adapting? What water and sanitation systems are we dealing with? What do we mean by ‘cope’? How do we get systems to adapt? How is climate changing? What aspects of these changes should we be concerned with? How long for and how certain are we? Much of the challenges relate to the latter as there is no certainty about the future, the drivers and how they will change and also society’s capability to adapt and cope with them. This uncertainty is unlikely to reduce for the foreseeable future. This report aims to help the partners in the PREPARED project to deal with uncertainty about the future. The report is not about predicting the future using descriptive futures research, but envisaging plausible and logically consistent versions of futures in a Foresighting process. Visions of the future may be termed ‘scenarios’ and can be used to represent how things might look at some time in the future and are frequently used in the water sector (e.g. SCENES project). There are many versions of scenarios in use and often these are available in each country; in different forms for various utility sectors, services and infrastructure. Hence there is no single scenario or even set of scenarios that can be used exclusively for scenario planning even within a particular sector or country.

In urban settings, supplying potable water will be a major challenge of the 21st century as most of the water consumption is for domestic use.

The basic questions for utility decision-makers are where to invest and what to invest in, while not knowing the type or extent of impact that can be expected.

This document aims at providing examples on how utilities have or will go ahead preparing their water supply and sanitation systems for the impact of climate change. It is a living document that will be updated regularly during the project when new solutions and initiatives are known.

Building a catalogue of adaptive solutions requires a minimum of classification and typology. But since the definition of ‘adaptation’ itself is still a subject under discussion, the choice was made to go back to the basics and to organise this document around three main questions: Adapt to what? What to adapt? and How to adapt?

The PREPARED project aimed to explore adaptation to climate change for water and waste water utilities. For different water systems climate change effects and potential adaptation measures have been researched. An example is the “conceptual scheme for rainwater harvesting and grey water management as alternative resource for regions under water stress” developed in Istanbul.

Adaptation measures to climate change in water systems are always aligned to cost and environmental effects. One specific environmental effect is the occurrence of greenhouse gas emissions resulting from implementing and operating an adaptation measure. This report presents methods on how to assess costs and environmental effects aligned to adaptation measures like greenhouse gas emissions.

The presented methods are applied in three case studies: Assessment of grey and rainwater use in Istanbul; assessment of operating schemes for aquifer recharge in Barcelona; assessment of scenarios to reduce combined sewer overflows in Berlin. Methods used to assess and compare costs of adaptation measures are the cost comparison method, the cost-benefit analysis method and cost-effectiveness method. Further, to assess GHG emissions the carbon footprint calculation method was used.

Current drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) will encounter higher temperatures as a result of climate change. This will influence the the composition of the bacteria population in the drinking water. A shift will take place in the species that are present in the drinking water and in the biofilm. Moreover, opportunistic or pathogenic organisms can develop in the drinking water at higher temperature, causing potential health risks. An increased need is observed globally to monitor water quality at the right locations and time in distribution systems to ensure safe drinking water.

As part of the PREPARED project a model was developed to predict weather impact on water quality and the effect on microbial growth in the distribution system that allows to model the impact of changing weather patterns due to climate change. The model was demonstrated in the city of Eindhoven, the Netherlands, together with the Brabant Water water supply utility. Brabant Water provided the distribution network model and general demand patterns. KWR provided the water quality modelling using simulated detailed water demand, GIS data on land use and predicted weather patterns under climate change. The Brabant Water performed water quality testing and provided historical water quality data.

The demonstration in Eindhoven consisted of a virtual simulation of predicted growth of three types of bacteria with different growth rates under increasing temperature conditions and comparing predictions for the current situation to measurements of Aeromonas as an indicator of microbial growth.

Any drinking-water supply system is also a habitat for microorganisms. In groundwater, microorganisms are typically adapted to high flow and low nutrient conditions and their number is low compared to surface water. Although the treatment steps during drinking water production usually have a high removal capacity, it is not possible to achieve full removal of all microorganisms. They might survive in biofilms attached to surfaces as well as in the water phase In addition, the microbial quality of water normally changes in a piped network [AINSWORTH 2004], and changes in the treatment or operation scheme may affect the performance of the system, too. As excessive microbial activity can lead to quality deterioration (odour, taste, discolouration), monitoring of the biofouling potential, and adapted treatment schemes, operation, and maintenance of the whole treatment and distribution system are therefore inevitable.

Climate change involving higher temperatures is believed to enhance the re-growth potential of (health-relevant) bacteria in groundwater, and thus in the raw water for drinking water production, and in distribution systems.

In Berlin, drinking water supply relies mainly on groundwater sources within the city's limits and involves a natural treatment scheme. The raw water abstracted from the wells is aerated and iron-removal is achieved by rapid sand filters. Disinfection is generally not provided, only in case of contamination events.

The objective for the Berlin pilot study in WP 1.2 was therefore to evaluate the suitability of flow cytometry measures and ATP measures under full-scale conditions for quantifying micro-organisms in the free water as basis for further biofilm studies.

The PREPARED project aims to facilitate the adaptation of cities to the imminent change in climate conditions. Current water management of many cities is generally designed for a regular operation within the usual ranges of quality and quantity of their resources.

This report summarises the methodologies and results obtained during the demonstrative phase of PREPARED project in Sant Vicenç dels Horts (SVH), which is one of the most active MAR systems in the Llobregat Area (Barcelona). The MAR system in SVH has been studied in detail both at laboratory-scale (by means of a pilot-column operated under conditions representative of the MAR system) and field-scale (by directly measuring sediments accumulated in settling boxes placed in the SVH MAR site).

Results obtained from this study allowed giving a list of recommendation for the improvement of the operation and maintenance of MAR facilities, so the proposed measures can be directly implanted in SVH recharge system.

Not only results but also developed methodologies will be available for their direct application in other MAR sites to evaluate their preparedness in the near and middle future. This work will contribute to position surface MAR as a reliable alternative and give them more robustness, in the sense of having more tools for the control and evaluation of the risks during their operation.

Growing population and rapid industrial developments in combination with predictable climate change are influencing water sources for Mediterranean basins, pushing for the need to practice more improved adopted strategies for Istanbul. The city relies on surface water resources, which are also thought to increase the impacts or risks of climate change. The anticipated impacts are regional momentary drought periods and extreme events of rainfall causing floods, which are becoming more noticeable.

Referring to perception need for innovative water resources, along with pollution control and mitigation of climate change impact issues rainwater harvesting (RWH) and grey water (GW) reuse concepts are experimentally assessed. RWH may be considered as a reliable, ecological and economic option of water supply for non-potable water consumption. Moreover, the concept presents advantages for surface water run-off management and, accordingly, mitigation of flood risks.

There is still need for the assessment for practical implementation for a holistic integrated approach for RWH and GW reuse such as characterization from various sources for relevant parameters associated with climate change, collection, treatment, storage and reuse options. Hence, as an integrated approach at local conditions, and considering climate change impacts and relevant challenges for mitigation for GW and RW, systems are tested at the pilot implementation site for Istanbul.

The PREPARED project aims to distribute the experience of the cities, produced knowledge, and results of R&D of the project to city utilities through demonstration plants/activities. Therefore, a pilot plant on rainwater harvesting systems and grey water collection-treatment and reuse will be implemented in TUBITAK Campus and the outcomes will be tested conceptually in a selected case study area in Istanbul.

Rainwater harvesting may be considered as a partial solution for the cities suffering from water stress along with the grey water segregation-treatment – reuse concept. This model is applicable to suitable buildings or residential areas in urban environment. In this context, the presented task includes demonstration of the concept for selected case study buildings. The scope covers the implementation of a suitable system for treatment, collection of data for grey water, rainwater, treated effluents, technology assessment, sanitation, and economical feasibility aspects.

Moreover, stormwater characterization from roads and pavement areas, rainwater monitoring throughout storage, assessment of promising reuse alternatives as well as the positive and negative impacts of these alternatives are considered in this study. The study involves comprehensive monitoring of the collection-storage-treatment system(s) for environmentally meaningful parameters for climate change impact perspective. The study focuses on PAH and PCB measurements, evaluation of the results and mitigation measures along with the monitoring of conventional parameters for water reuse.

Evaluation of the rainwater and grey water management systems with a perception of development of alternative water resources, pollution control and mitigation, climate change impact issues, public acceptance and feasibility is accomplished. The outcomes of the study provide a base for technical information on grey water-rainwater valorisation, applicable monitoring implementation practices for cities which will presumably suffer from climate change impacts and water stress. The results may constitute a tool for technical personnel, decision makers, planners water utilities, consumers and various stakeholders such as treatment equipment manufacturers.

Lisbon drinking water distribution system (DWDS) utilizes chlorine residual as the last barrier against microbial hazards. Raises in temperature – mean and episodic (e.g. heat waves), as well in the waters organic matter (NOM) contents, are expected climate change consequences. Hence, climate change effects bring added difficulties to the already complex task of managing chlorine residual concentration in the Lisbon DWDS.

The modelling of chlorine is an essential tool for the management of disinfectant residual in DWDS. However, the simulation of chlorine behaviour in DWDS is still complex, as it relies on the accuracy of hydraulic models to describe flows and travel times, as well as on the certainty of the used chlorine decay rate coefficients. In this context, in addition to the determination of sound decay rate coefficients, real time monitoring of hydraulic and quality parameters is of keen importance for model implementation, calibration and use (Monteiro et al.).

This deliverable presents the finidings from Lisbon in their overall effort of designing, implementing and demonstrating a system for real-time control of chlorine residual concentration in Lisbon.

This document presents the demonstration of D5.3.1 “Methodologies for urban runoff risk assessment” in the Barcelona case study. The methodology developed in this task is applied in a district of the city of Barcelona that is often facing flooding problems which are expected to increase with the predicted climatic changes.

The document presents the findings and concludes with 2 main practical results which will lead to future actions for Barcelona utility.

Climate change will cause increased frequency of high intensity rainfalls, and will strongly influence the operation of municipal sewerage systems transporting both storm water and municipal wastewater (combined sewer systems). During high intensity rainfalls the capacity of the combined sewer systems will be exceeded, resulting in the discharge of combined storm water and untreated wastewater to receiving waters. Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) can introduce high concentrations of pathogenes and other pollutants into the recipient. Generally, CSOs can represent a threat to the public health as a result of contamination of drinking water sources and bathing waters.

This demonstration project focus on how a mechanical, chemical and biological (activated sludge) treatment plant can increase the treatment capacity during high flow events by introducing chemical precipitation in (coagulation + flocculation) the primary settling tanks, to prevent discharge of untreated wastewater to the recipient. The most important aspects of the demonstration project are:

  • How peaks in the incoming wastewater flow are handled
  • How the removal efficiency of the wastewater treatment plant will vary during the different operational modes 

Increased occurrence of high intensity rainfalls will strongly influence the operation of municipal sewerage systems transporting both storm water and municipal wastewater (combined sewer systems, CSS). During high intensity rainfalls the capacity of the combined sewer systems will be exceeded, resulting in the discharge of combined storm water and untreated wastewater to receiving waters. Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) can introduce high concentrations of pathogenes and other pollutants into the recipient. Generally, CSOs can represent a threat to the public health as a result of contamination of drinking water sources and bathing waters.

Due to an expected increased frequency of heavy rain falls in the future, the risk of pollution from discharges via storm water overflow weirs will increase. Consequently, it will be of major importance to utilize the treatment capacity of the wastewater treatment plants as far as possible. Norwegian experiences shows that chemical precipitation (coagulation + flocculation) removes particles and soluble phosphorous to a great extent. However chemical precipitation has a minor effect on the removal of nitrogen. Based on the experiences from Bekkelaget WWTP and this demonstration project, the several conclusions and recommendations are made.

Increased occurrence of high intensity rainfalls will strongly influence the operation of municipal sewerage systems transporting both storm water and municipal wastewater (combined sewer systems, CSS). During high intensity rainfalls the capacity of the combined sewer systems will be exceeded, resulting in the discharge of combined storm water and untreated wastewater to receiving waters. Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) can introduce high concentrations of pathogenes and other pollutants into the recipient. Generally, CSOs can represent a threat to the public health as a result of contamination of drinking water sources and bathing waters.

Due to an expected increased frequency of heavy rain falls in the future, the risk of pollution from discharges via storm water overflow weirs will increase. Consequently, it will be of major importance to utilize the treatment capacity of the wastewater treatment plants as far as possible. Norwegian experiences shows that chemical precipitation (coagulation + flocculation) removes particles and soluble phosphorous to a great extent. However chemical precipitation has a minor effect on the removal of nitrogen. Based on the experiences from Bekkelaget WWTP and this demonstration project, the several conclusions and recommendations are made.

Gliwice is a city with 200.000 inhabitants in the densely populated urban area of the Upper Silesia in southern Poland. During the last 20 years the city, with an economy once based on heavy industry, is actively operating on the innovation market.

Climate change has a significant impact on the frequency of extreme weather events in Gliwice (Frei et al., 2000). During the most severe rainfall events, despite the continuous modernisation of the sewer and drainage system, the city centre is flooded regularly approximately once a year. This causes damage to buildings and infrastructure and is a real threat to public safety.

The City of Gliwice (Water Supply and Sanitation Company – PWiK Gliwice) in collaboration with the Institute for Ecology of Industrial Areas (IETU, Katowice) is working on this problem that is top priority for the city, as from the point of safety for inhabitants, concern about the environmental impact as well as for the economic development of Gliwice. The solution demonstrated in Gliwice as a part of the PRREPARED project is an enhanced real-time measuring and forecasting system. This deliverable presents the findings and looks and the steps forward beyond the PREPARED project.

Combined sewer overflows (CSO) after heavy rainfall can cause acute depletions of dissolved oxygen (DO) in the Berlin River Spree. Further aggravation of ecological deficits can be expected from global climate change. A planning instrument for CSO impact assessment under different sewer management and climate conditions has been developed at Kompetenzzentrum Wasser Berlin. It couples the sewer model InfoWorks CS, the river water quality model Hydrax/QSim and an impact assessment tool.

A detailed analysis of river processes after CSO, has shown that the biodegradation of organic carbon compounds is the most important contributor to acute DO depletions in the Berlin River Spree. An additional impairment of DO conditions is caused by the inflow of oxygen free CSO spill water and suspended solids into the Berlin River Spree.

In this report, CSO impacts under different management strategies or climate change conditions are assessed only for a part of the Berlin combined sewer system (although the main part) and for one exemplary year. An extension of the planning instrument to the entire combined sewer system would enable to evaluate the full impact of measures. For a robust prediction of future CSO impacts it is also recommended to test different simulation periods or conduct long-term simulations.

The different partners of the PREPARED work on innovative and practical solutions to manage better water systems so they will be able to cope with climate change.

The management of sediments in sewer is currently a major concern for water operators. Knowledge and tools could be used to control the risks related to sediments such as contamination to the receiving waters, urban flooding or odours. Climate change is expected to modify those risks, making them more unpredictable if the management methods continue to rely mostly on past experiences. Accordingly the application of innovative solutions is needed to reach the desired level of risk management and at the lower cost possible.

The aim of the Demonstration is to test in a real-case existing and new methods for sediments monitoring and sediment modelling.

This report presents the results obtained on sediment monitoring and modelling in two parts of the sewer network of Barcelona

Due to the presence of mountains in the upper part of the catchments and the described gradients, sediments enter the sewer network. They are eroded and transported through the sewers with high gradients and sediment in the low part of the city with low sewer slopes, causing several problems such as a reduction of hydraulic capacity and odours in this part of the city. Other major sediment inputs result from parks located inside the city, and construction works. It is expected that these issues could increase in the future due to climate change as more intense events and prolonged dry periods will lead to increase rural catchments erosions so more sediments can get into the sewers.

To reduce these problems and also to reduce pollution problems linked to sediments, the municipality spends a high annual budget for monitoring and cleansing of sewer sediments, so any improvement, understanding the sediment behaviour would contribute to great savings and a better and most efficient use of the municipality resources.

The morphology of Barcelona presents areas close to the Collserola Mountain with high gradients (with an average of 4%) and other flat areas near to the Mediterranean Sea with lower slopes (with an average of 1%). This morphology produces flash floods in the lower city in case of heavy storm events.

Within the PREPARED project a methodology for sediment monitoring and modelling is being developed within WP 3.2 by CETAQUA and INSA. The transfer of this methodology into practice will be conducted in a demonstration phase, commencing in February 2012. The objective of this report is to document the basic information necessary for the demonstration and to clearly identify tasks and responsibilities beforehand so there is a mutual understanding amongst the involved partners on what is to be done, where, by whom and when.

The City of Aarhus, Denmark, has like many other coastal cities undertaken the task of restoring its old industrial harbour area into residential and recreational areas. Further, the city – as a coastal city – wants to use water as a recreational element in the old city center, and has therefore reopened a small cased river draining water from an upstream lake into the harbour – the lake already being a recreational area.

To support the opportunities for recreational use of the lake, river and harbour, the City of Aarhus in 2005 also decided to improve the hygienic water quality in the receiving waters. In more measurable terms this decision is driven by the European Water Framework Directive and the Bathing Water Directive, and the solution should in its design be adapted to the expected climate change scenario.

The preliminary planning work had already shown, that adaptation of the existing combined sewer systems in the old city center to a climate change driven increased intensity of rainfall, should include a more efficient transport and temporary storage of storm- and wastewater in order to protect the downstream wastewater treatment plants - leading to an overall reduced environmental impact from combined sewer overflows. Top three challenges were identified as:

  • Sufficient storage tank volume (cost/space limitations in old city center)
  • Sufficient water quality, (bathing water quality in Lake Brabrand, The Harbour of Aarhus and partly in the River of Aarhus)
  • Climate change (rain intensity, sea level)

These challenges were assessed using an integrated model system for the resulting bathing water quality (based on the EU-directive classification) in the receiving waters. The modeling showed that a solution meeting the challenges and being compliant with the directives should be based on:

  • Construction of 7 new storage tanks (incl. new trunk sewers where necessary) with a total volume of app. 67.000 m3
  • Installation of extra hydraulic capacity at 3 wastewater treatment plants (secondary clarifiers and optimization/control of the treatment plants during rain)
  • Disinfection of treated wastewater at 2 wastewater treatment plants discharging to the river
  • Implementation of integrated RTC of sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants and a warning system for the bathing water quality in the harbour

The city of Lisbon has an extended water front along the Tagus estuary, with several combined sewer overflows (CSO) in the low-lying area. The city is served by three wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), of which the Alcântara WWTP serves the largest area, with about 6 000 ha. This WWTP was designed to serve 670 000 inhabitants equivalent with secondary treatment. The WWTP effluent is discharged into the Tagus estuary by the outfall that also carries the CSO discharges from the 3 200 ha Alcântara combined catchment. The riverside downtown area is subject to flooding due to several factors, namely the low slopes, the influence of the Tagus estuary tidal level and the deposition of sediments and organic matter in the sewers. The latter factor also increases pollution from CSO due to wash-off. The stormwater and wastewater management in the city of Lisbon is closely linked to the Tagus estuary, the receiving water body for the effluents, where the water quality for recreational uses is a matter of concern. Climate change will exacerbate flooding in the downtown area and the CSO impacts in the estuary due to the expected growing magnitude and frequency of extreme rain events and sea level rise. Furthermore, increased saline water intrusion into the sewers due to sea level rise can degrade drainage infrastructures, affect gate and pump operations and reduce the efficiency of the advanced biological wastewater treatment.

This demo intends to assess and improve the robustness of the system forecasts and to evaluate the ability of the system to support early warnings for faecal contamination in the estuary.

As a part of the "Climate Change Adaptation Initiative" in Aarhus the "Integrated Control and Early Warning" project has installed a LAWR radar [DHI, 2010 to 2012] on the roof of the Harlev WWTP. The objective of the radar is to provide high spatial and temporal information on rainfall over the city. This radar is named "AROS".

Rainfall is the driving force of hydrological processes and many relevant processes and thus accurate information on rainfall is of great importance for constructing simulation models for those processes in catchments. It is recognised that rainfall is highly variable in both space and time and the variability should be considered when estimating runoff quantity and quality at catchment outlets. Furthermore, it is widely believed that climate change will have significant impact on rainfall patterns, which will in turn affect hydrological and other related processes.

In Greater Lyon area, a network of relatively intensive rain gauges is installed (around 30 rain gauges in an area of 51500 ha). However, the rain gauges are still considered too sparse to capture spatial rainfall variability and the spatial uncertainty of rainfall is probably one of the major uncertainty sources in rainfall runoff modelling for the catchments of Greater Lyon area. Thus the knowledge on spatial rainfall is essential for advancing modelling simulation tools. Consequently, climate change scenarios can be better simulated using better simulation tools, particularly with more accurate rainfall information, which will help the utility to upgrade the sewerage system and real time control systems, reducing CSO events even under Climate change.

The local area weather radar (LAWR) developed and manufactured by DHI is a small-scale weather radar intended as supplement to rain gauges primarily in urban areas or un-gauged catchments for rainfall measurement (Jensen, 2002). LAWR has been applied in many places around the world for both meteorological and hydrological purposes (e.g., Rollenbeck and Bendix, 2006; Pedersen et al., 2010; Savina and Burlando, 2010; Thorndahl and Rasmussen, 2012).

This study aims to test the capacity of LAWR for to spatial rainfall measurements in Greater Lyon area. From August 2011 to April 2012, a LAWR was installed on the roof of the LGCIE building in INSA Lyon for a preliminary testing period. Since summer 2012, the radar was moved to another location on a drinking water tower in Greater Lyon. Data were collected in the latter location properly from October 2012 to April 2013. As the LAWR is adapted from a marine radar, it has inherent limitations and thus the calibration is recommended based on rain gauge data. Some modifications of the signal processing program are carried out in the radar system between the two periods. Hence calibration methods for the two periods are different. In the first period, a semi-theoretical relationship between radar outputs and rainfall rates was constructed based on the radar equation. In the second period, rainfall is transformed from radar outputs using the Marshall-Palmer equation and a multiplicative coefficient is then used to adjust rainfall values based on rain gauge measurements. Event-based approaches were performed for both periods considering that characteristics of rainfall differ for different events.

This report gives an overview of the work with risk and vulnerability analysis (ROS in Norwegian) performed in Oslo and the one related to the WSCP produced as a part of the PREPARED project. Oslo Water and Sewerage Works (VAV in Norwegian) is responsible for the whole water cycle as one organisation. This makes it natural for Oslo to have a holistic risk analyses approach covering the whole urban water cycle when they analyse their water and wastewater systems. In Oslo it has been important to carry out an all-hazard approach, i.e. covering the whole water cycle but also to identify and evaluate links to other critical infrastructures such as telecom, electricity etc. The work described in this report, mainly represent the work in Oslo carried out during 2009 to 2011. In the following 2 years Oslo has continued to work on improving the safety of their water cycle system.

Potential effects of climate dynamics on the urban water cycle can involve the aggravation of existing conditions as well as occurrence of new hazards or risk factors. The risks associated with expected climate changes have to be dealt with by the society in general and by the water utilities and other stakeholders in particular.

The challenges created by climate changes require an integrated approach for dealing with existing and expected levels of risk. Given the interactions of urban water and natural systems, adaptation measures should address all water cycle components and their interactions.

This report proposes a generic framework to identify relevant risks and opportunities while incorporat-ing uncertainties, in a systematic way. The main purpose of this report is to setup an overall frame-work for development and implementation of Water Cycle Safety Plans (WCSP).

Throughout this document, examples and tools are provided to clarify and assist implementing a WCSP framework.

This report gives an overview of the work with risk and vulnerability analysis (ROS in Norwegian) performed in Oslo and the one related to the WSCP produced as a part of the PREPARED project. Oslo Water and Sewerage Works (VAV in Norwegian) is responsible for the whole water cycle as one organisation. This makes it natural for Oslo to have a holistic risk analyses approach covering the whole urban water cycle when they analyse their water and wastewater systems. In Oslo it has been important to carry out an all-hazard approach, i.e. covering the whole water cycle but also to identify and evaluate links to other critical infrastructures such as telecom, electricity etc. The work described in this report, mainly represent the work in Oslo carried out during 2009 to 2011. In the following 2 years Oslo has continued to work on improving the safety of their water cycle system.

The main lessons learned from Oslo are:

  • It is important to analyse the whole urban water cycle in a systematic coherent way in line with the WCSP framework;
  • For Oslo VAV the borderlines between different water elements and departments have been specially addressed since risks here traditionally have been difficult to identify;
  • Special focus was on the link between water and wastewater since wastewater is the main source for contamination of the drinking water;
  • Oslo VAV has in the project also focused on the interdependencies with other critical infrastructures such as electricity, telecommunication and ICT revealing interesting findings for Oslo VAV and a future extending of the WCSP framework;
  • When the components of urban water cycle interact they can generate complex system-level behaviour;
  • WCSP process promotes rational, risk-informed thinking and risk awareness;
  • Even though Oslo VAV covers the whole urban water cycle, communication between departments in Oslo is a barrier for exchange of knowledge between the different disciplines; the WSCP approach and work with the integrated risk analysis has improved the work flow;
  • In general, the analysis showed that even though water and wastewater services in Oslo perform adequately in daily operations, Oslo VAV might be vulnerable to both internal and external risks. Risk reducing measures have been identified and to some extent already implemented.

Potential effects of climate dynamics on the urban water cycle can involve the aggravation of existing conditions as well as occurrence of new hazards or risk factors. The risks associated with expected climate changes have to be dealt with by the society in general and by the water utilities and other stakeholders in particular.

The challenges created by climate changes require an integrated approach for dealing with existing and expected levels of risk. Given the interactions of urban water and natural systems, adaptation measures should address all water cycle components and their interactions.

A generic framework is proposed in this document in order to identify significant risks and opportunities while incorporating uncertainties, in a systematic way. The main purpose of this report is to provide an overall framework for development and implementation of Water Cycle Safety Plans (WCSP). An initial proposal of framework was tested in case studies of the PREPARED project.

In many cases the governance of the urban water systems (UWS) involves various stakeholders, each with their own objectives and tasks. The WCSP provides a common approach and a platform to work together towards common goals; in the specific case of the PREPARED project this meant adapting the UWS for climate change. The WCSP also brings together knowledge that is often not combined in daily practice, such as management policy technical know-how and practical experience. Thus the WCSP team is intended to be an experienced, multidisciplinary and collaborative team that understands the overall aims and sector specificities.

Throughout this document, practical examples and tools are provided to clarify and assist implementing a WCSP framework

The water cycle safety plan framework (WCSP) was developed as a risk based integrated approach for the urban water cycle. Meanwhile many of the aspects are also dealt with in various European water related directives or discussions are taking place between the EC and the Member States to include a risk based approach.

Some directives make reference to the need for a risk based approach or risk based requirements. Therefore a link between the requirements of the directives and the work in and results from the WCSP seems logical. The WCSP is directed at the urban scale, focusing on the water utilities point of view, whereas the directives are more on a regional or river basin scale. The geographic orientation (or the scale at which they operate) of the stakeholders in the WCSP can be smaller or larger. These differences in scales need to be addressed.

In this report an overview of the water related European directives is provided together with the assessment of the extend they include risk assessment or risk management. Possible links between the directives and the WCSP are identified and suggestions are provided how to practically establish links.

The water cycle safety plan framework supports the stakeholders in the urban water cycle to manage risks in a coherent and systematic way. This website provides tools to perform the WCSP process and it provides examples from WCSP demonstrations. The  WCSP framework document can be downloaded here. Materials and examples for each WCSP step can be found by clicking the steps in the scheme below. The GIS Toolbox for climate change risks in the urban water cycle is included here.

Climate changes can have impact in all areas of the water industry, including quality and availability of water sources and water infrastructure robustness. Water utilities will have to adapt to the impacts of climate change; the choices of today, particularly regarding investments in infrastructure, will significantly influence the ability of the water industry to react to the impact of climate changes of tomorrow. In addition to the need to plan investments, new issues related to water supply, health safety and environmental protection will have to be accounted for.

This report brings into light the need for evaluating the relationship between climate changes and their impacts on urban water components, such as, river flow, groundwater level and salinity, reservoir level, water quality, demand for water and resilience of assets and infrastructures. It is envisaged that climate changes have high probability of influencing water quality acting in reducing the efficiency of current water treatment plants, affecting quality at the reservoirs, and during water transport.

In this report the impacts of the expected climate changes on the urban water cycle are characterised. This report is based on the climate change assessment carried out by SINTEF and LNEC within the PREPARED Work Area 2. The report starts by summarising the projected climate changes in four different European climate regions and their effects, regardless the specific impact on the water industry. After this first general point, the attention is driven to understanding how climate changes can impact urban water assets, both in generic terms, with a summary of the main impacts on the integrated water cycle, water supply and wastewater/stormwater systems, and in detail, describing impacts at single asset groups for each climate region.

This report will serve as starting reference for WAs 2, 5 and 6.

The deliverables D 2.2.2 Risk identification database (RIDB) contents and data structure (PREPARED 2011.022) and D 2.2.3 Preliminary water cycle risk identification database (RIDB) (PREPARED 2011.023) are related. The present explanatory report “Risk identification database supporting document for definition of contents and data structure” is the supporting document to these two databases and of an additional deliverable (PREPARED 2011.024) entitled Register of historical accidents structure.

This document presents the adopted structure and contents for a risk identification database (RIDB), providing background information on the data needed for event characterization (event description, hazard, risk sources, contributing causes, existing measures to reduce risk, risk factors, typical consequence dimensions) and on data for estimating the effect of climate changes in event risk. This RIDB is intended to facilitate the task of risk identification in the WCSP. Additionally, a register of historical accidents is proposed.

 

Potential effects of climate dynamics on the urban water cycle can involve the aggravation of existing conditions as well as occurrence of new hazards or risk factors. The risks associated with expected climate changes have to be dealt with by the society in general and by the water utilities and related stakeholders in particular. For this, an integrated approach for dealing with existing and expected levels of risk is required. In PREPARED Task 2.1.1 a WCSP framework was proposed for such an integrated approach. One of the steps for WCSP application is risk identification.

This document gives guidance for hazard selection and identification and corresponding events to be considered in the WCSP. Plausible hazards identified in the urban water cycle are listed and briefly presented, including information on the consequences of the exposure as well as the potential causes and relevance of specific climate change indicators or effects. Fault trees were constructed for each of the listed hazards to allow identification of potential events, risk sources, risk factors and contributing causes. These were verified together with stakeholder participants and suggestions incorporated.

Three applications (Risk Identification Data Base RIDB; Register of historical hazards; Check list to filter risk sources) developed within PREPARED, intended to facilitate risk identification, are presented.

This report focuses on defining risk and uncertainty, and details methods related to risk assessment, uncertainty analysis and propagation.

Risk is introduced and defined, followed by an introduction to risk assessment, with literature review details of several relevant methodologies, all of which could be used in the risk analysis of urban water systems. A summary of the most used methods is provided.

Deterministic quantitative risk assessment (QRA) is introduced, followed by the recognition that there is always some inherent uncertainty when dealing with the key facets of determining risk, leading to a discussion on stochastic QRA, which aims to account for the uncertainty using the methods described.

Finally, some preliminary risk categories for water systems are outlined and these are subsequently broken down to examine some potential social, environmental and economic risks posed by the various hazards that may impact the water systems in the face of a changing climate.

Potential effects of climate dynamics on the urban water cycle can involve the aggravation of existing conditions as well as occurrence of new hazards or risk factors. The risks associated with expected climate changes have to be dealt with by the society in general and by the water utilities and other stakeholders in particular.

The challenges created by climate dynamics require an integrated approach for dealing with existing and expected levels of risk. Given the interactions of urban water and natural systems, adaptation measures should address all water cycle components and their interactions.

The application of the proposed WCSP framework requires a number of tools to facilitate the tasks of working groups involved. One of these tasks is the identification and selection of appropriate risk reduction measures (RRM) to face those risks that were found to be not acceptable.

The database of risk reduction measures (RRDB) is intended to facilitate the systematic identification of RRM for each risk as well as help quantifying the potential for risk reduction.

This document introduces the risk reduction database structure, providing background information, a classification of RRM and presents the adopted database structure as well as the selected criteria to characterise each measure.

The subsequent PREPARED tasks allow testing and improving of this initial proposal of the RRDB as well as feeding the database with data from the selected case studies of the project.

The deliverable PREPARED 2011.025 D.2.4.1 consists of two parts, a database and an explanatory report. The database is called: D 2.4.1 Risk reduction measures database (RRDB). The explanatory report is called: D 2.4.1 Risk reduction measures. Supporting document to RRDB structure.

This document introduces the risk reduction database structure, providing background information, a classification of RRM and presents the adopted database structure as well as the selected criteria to characterise each measure.

Risks associated with expected climate changes have to be dealt with by the water utilities and other stakeholders of the urban water cycle. Adaptation to this type of risks is a key part of the PREPARED project, where an integrated approach (Water Cycle Safety Planning – WCSP) was proposed and a set of supporting tools were developed to support the process of risk management according to the WCSP.

Following the WCSP steps, after risk analysis and evaluation it is necessary to proceed with the risk treatment by finding a set of measures to reduce non acceptable risks aligned with the events. To facilitate the application of the risk treatment step a database with risk reduction measures (PREPARED Risk Reduction Measures Database (RRDB)) has been developed (Deliverable 2.4.1). This database provides an inspirational checklist to find appropriate RRMs for specific application cases. The database also indicates costs, potential for risk reduction and several other attributes of each included measure on qualitative scales. Due to the strongly case dependent outcomes of each measure in the database, it was not viable to quantify all measures for the general case. However, in order to assess or even compare alternative RRMs in specific application cases, a quantification of RRMs is sometimes required, taking one or several decision criteria into account.

For that reasons the main purpose of this report is to help stakeholders like utilities in the step of risk treatment within the WCSP, especially in terms of quantification, comparison and selection of risk reduction measures. This report briefly describes the WCSP and its supporting tools, highlighting the core steps of the WCSP risk identification, risk analysis and evaluation and risk treatment. Especially the use of the RRDB and its catalogue of measures for the step of risk treatment are introduced as a supporting tool. As main part of the report, a generic analytical approach to quantify risk and risk reduction, aligned with the WCSP, is also given. Specific methods like cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) to quantify RRMs are presented as well. The application of these methods supports the comparison, prioritization and selection of risk reduction measures in risk treatment. Finally, a CBA is exemplified with in depth scenario calculations for different RRMs in Eindhoven, the Netherlands and the comparison of viable alternative RRMs is made. The focus of this example is on financial consequences from pluvial flooding.

Climate dynamics induces significant risks for water systems operators. Potential effects can involve the aggravation of existing conditions as well as the occurrence of new hazards or risk factors. To deal with this issue, within the PREPARED project a water cycle safety planning (WCSP) framework was proposed and tested. The WCSP is a preventive and systematic risk approach to support decisions on adaptive measures and strategies for the whole urban water cycle.

For both WCSP integrated and system’s levels, there is a risk treatment step, whose purpose is to modify the previously identified risks that need treatment and invloves the selection and evaluation of risk reduction measures.

This report gives guidance for developing the step of risk treatment within the WCSP framework, including guidance on the selection of measures to mitigate risks associated with events for which risk level was estimated as non-acceptable; and, evaluation of selected measures using multiple criteria, not only from an economic perspective but also in terms of performance (e.g. technologic, functional, environmental and social) and effectiveness in reducing risk. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches are mentioned.

The methodology adopted in this report has been divided into three main parts: identification of risk reduction measures; comparison and selection of alternative risk reduction measures; assessment of residual risk; and, recommendations for developing a risk reduction program. Finally, examples of application.

The first step to prepare for climate change effects on the water cycle is a risk assessment for the observed system to be prepared and, if it is necessary, protected. Risk management (RM) focuses on identification of risk improvement strategies. RM uses information from the risk assessment to identify engineering, management and financial strategies to diminish those consequences.

Risk assessment and risk management of climate change related risks to the urban water cycle are addressed in WA 2 of the PREPARED project (PREPARED, 2009). RA and RM are the cross-cutting issues and will have an ongoing two-way interaction with the technology development for adaptation of drinking water supply and sanitation systems of cities in the other WAs. Taking into account that climate change affects the entire water cycle and all these processes have spatial distribution, GIS tools and applications will form the basis for DSS development and will be used in the monitoring systems for integrated water resources management.

This report presents the information about GIS software and applications which may help to evaluate climate change impacts on drinking water supply and sewerage systems, to predict possible changes and be prepared for the consequences. The accent is on the products related to RA/RM for the urban water cycle hazards. The descriptions of these products in this report were based on available digital information (Web), a literature review and the answers to the questionnaire, received from the project partners (both research and utilities).

The main goal of the (literature) study was to provide an overview of GIS applications that have been or can be used for RA/RM of climate change hazards and to define missing GIS applications, which should be developed/adapted during the project.

Each identified software category is described in the report with reference to the last available version (for Open Source products) or the web site of the developer (for commercial products). The descriptions of products do not reflect the opinion of the authors or the PREPARED project, as they were based on the (commercial) information of the developer.

In the framework of PREPARED Enabling Change Project, impacts of climate change on the water cycle have been considered. Aspects related to climate change clearly have important spatial parameters such as temperature, expected sea level rise, surface water distribution, changes in precipitation patterns or elevation. Approaching these parameters from a geographic point of view provides a new way of thinking and problem solving. It allows us to enhance our knowledge by measuring the earth, organizing this data, analysing and modelling various processes and their relationships and to test scenarios of changing conditions.

All spatial data can be managed through database management software (DBMS) and geographic information systems (GIS). GIS is useful to manage, analyse and present information about geographically located features. Information can be about pollutions, roads, services, but also risk analysis, like maps of flooding areas or earthquake risk area. Within PREPARED, GIS applications that aid risk assessment and risk management (RA/RM) of climate change hazards were identified and developed.

This report discusses applications that are based on commercially available GIS software that was applied in the cities to address climate change issues related to the urban water cycle and to develop adaptation measures. These applications are presented in the form of algorithms, guidance on the appropriateness of the tools for the specific situation in the cities, and the data requirements.

In the framework of PREPARED Enabling Change Project, impacts of climate change on the water cycle have been considered. Aspects related to climate change clearly have important spatial parameters such as temperature, expected sea level rise, surface water distribution, changes in precipitation patterns or elevation. Approaching these parameters from a geographic point of view provides a new way of thinking and problem solving. It allows us to enhance our knowledge by measuring the earth, organizing this data, analysing and modelling various processes and their relationships and to test scenarios of changing conditions.

All spatial data can be managed through database management software (DBMS) and geographic information systems (GIS). GIS is useful to manage, analyse and present information about geographically located features. Information can be about pollutions, roads, services, but also risk analysis, like maps of flooding areas or earthquake risk area. Within PREPARED, GIS applications that aid risk assessment and risk management (RA/RM) of climate change hazards were identified and developed. In this report, methodologies applied in cities (Genoa, Eindhoven and Simferopol), developed with the use of Open Source or free GIS, are presented. 

The GIS toolbox is a guide on a set of instruments and examples of GIS applications developed for the risk evaluation related with climate change impact on urban environment.

These tools support the estimation of climate change scenarios impact and help in the adaptation analysis process.

In particular great attention was put on Open Source or Free GIS. The choice was done to minimize the cost of applications, even if also commercial software were considered because already owned by the user.

All developed applications show how GIS changed the way to implement data in modelling process: hydraulic, hydrological and geological studies require to handle a large amount of data, and the most you consider the best could be your result. GISs are very useful Data Base Management Software and have the added value to show these data on maps. Furthermore GIS are useful software to present results: decision making process often involves politicians or people that can find much more easy to watch a map than read a table.

This report is a brief market review of some sensors which present an interest for the PREPARED partners, for both research and demonstration activities. It is not an exhaustive review but only a focus on some specific on-line sensors which are either new or still not frequently used in urban water systems. It includes information mainly about metal, emerging pollutants, water level and H2S and odours sensors.

PREPARED aims to gather urban utilities in Europe and worldwide to develop an advanced strategy in meeting the upcoming challenges for water supply and sanitation brought by climate change. This report describes increased technological capacity and performance of traditional water supply and sanitation systems by better use of sensors and models.

A common protocol was developed for sensor testing. The common test protocol is used to provide sufficient information to the testing organisation to carry out sensor tests and to make determinations about performance of tested sensors, and can lead to issuance of test reports. The test protocol can also be used as an administrative document that governs all important aspects of the testing and can serve as a test plan template.

The common test protocol was developed for different types of on-line sensors, including optical sen-sors, electronic noses and biosensors. The test protocol is fully compatible with the EN ISO 15839.

The increasing need of data and knowledge about pollutants loads and their dynamics has led sewer systems operators to implement studies on the production, transfer and treatment of pollutants. Three approaches are currently and jointly being developed: measurement campaigns, modeling and continuous metrology. Reliable and representative estimation of pollutant concentrations and loads in urban water systems will be more and more important in the future. Traditional campaigns with samples collection and laboratory analyses are no longer an appropriate approach and on line continuous sensors are necessary.

Based on a market review (D 3.1.1), some sensors have been selected (D 3.1.2) to be tested by PREPARED partners. This deliverable reports about the tests carried out with sensors presented in D 3.1.2, providing data which can be used to estimate, with appropriate methods, total suspended solids (TSS) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in urban wastewater and stormwater, with their associated uncertainties determined according to the methods presented in D 3.1.6.

The results confirm the good correlations between some parameters (turbidity, conductivityand UV/Vis fingerprint) and pollutant indicators concentrations. No sensor appears as the best one for all three investigated pollutants. The majority of sensors deliver similar estimates of indicators if one accounts for their respective uncertainties,

This PREPARED deliverable includes two parts:

  • A synthesis paper published in Water Science and Technology, which presents the sensors tested and the main results obtained to estimate TSS and COD concentrations.
  • An appendix, which provides all details about sensors, tests, methods, results and discussion. This appendix is the PhD thesis of Mathieu Lepot (written in French).

This report briefly summarizes the results of the tests of electronic noses for measurement of odours from sewer systems. Tests have been conducted with real wastewater in Berlin at a sewer research plant of the Berliner Wasserbetriebe over a period of 8 months.

The methods are briefly described in Chapter 3. Electronic noses have been tested, two in the frame of PREPARED. Eleven evaluation criteria have been defined to evaluate the electronic noses - the correlation of sensor signals to olfactometric measurements was in the fore.

The investigations revealed that the e-nose could deliver sensor signals which are related to odour (up to 87 % odour prediction capabilities). The versatility and practicality of the devices however appear limited at the current status. For an active participation in a real scale application, further implementations as e.g. software with direct access to odour values, delay reduction, robust casings, etc. should still be done in order to meet requirements for specific sewer odour applications.

The transferability of the results and especially of established models is a crucial open question.

Assessing uncertainties is done systematically in almost all hard sciences research fields, and in more and more numerous engineering domains. In the field of urban water systems, this is still not a sys-tematic and common practice. One of the aims of PREPARED is to promote, to contribute and to exemplify how to systematically evaluate uncertainties in urban water systems.

Assessing uncertainties is necessary to better quantify and to improve the quality of measurements; to better contribute in modeling, by accounting for uncertainties in model structures, inputs, parame-ters and outputs; and to better help in decision making.

The objectives of this deliverable are to introduce the two internationally recognised standards for assessment of measurement uncertainties; and to provide examples of application.

Many documents already exist: this deliverable will not replicate them, but cites and refers to them as much as necessary.

Assessing uncertainties is done systematically in almost all hard sciences research fields, and in more and more numerous engineering domains. In the field of urban water systems, this is still not a systematic and common practice. Therefore, one of the aims of PREPARED is to promote, to contribute and to exemplify how to systematically evaluate uncertainties in urban water systems.

Assessing uncertainties is necessary:

  • To better quantify and to improve the quality of measurements;
  • To better contribute in modelling, by accounting for uncertainties in model structures, inputs, parameters and outputs;
  • To better help in decision making.

This PREPARED deliverable includes:

  • An introduction to the two internationally recognized standards for assessment of measurement uncertainties (GUM Law of Propagation of uncertainties and the
  • Monte Carlo method);
  • Three examples of application, with various levels of complexity, showing in detail how to apply the above methods for uncertainty assessment. The examples deal with sewer systems, but they can be easily transposed to other components of urban water systems.
  • References to additional documents.

The EVOHE software is developed in PREPARED to implement and make accessible for all users metrological methods for sensors calibration, uncertainty assessment and off-line data validation for time series collected in urban water systems. These methods are presented in D3.1.5, D3.1.6 and D3.3.1.

This deliverable is the user manual of the EVOHE software version 2013.2.

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The EVOHE prototype software is developed in PREPARED to implement and make accessible for all users metrological methods for sensors calibration, uncertainty assessment and off-line data validation for time series collected in urban water systems.

This deliverable is the user manual of the EVOHE software.

This manual is only available in French. 

The partners of the project PREPARED work on innovative and practical solutions to better manage water systems and to be able to cope with climate change.

The management of sediments in sewers is currently a major concern for water operators. Knowledge and tools could be used to control the risks related to sediments such as contamination to the receiving waters, urban flooding or odours. The applications of those methods and tools are still quite limited while the demand for a better management of the associated risks increases.

In addition, it is expected that climate change will reinforce sediment related problems: i) during longer dry periods with higher temperature, more sedimentation and related problems (corrosion, odours, etc.) are expected to occur, ii) during more intense storm events, sediment erosion and consequent release of pollutants and impacts on receiving waters will also become more critical.

The aims of the Work Package 3.2 is to give useful knowledge to sewer operators so they will be able to better manage water systems and be able to cope with climate change. Different tools and methods have been assessed for sediment measurements and modelling. Several reports have been produced to present the results of these studies.

This report is a synthesis of those results aiming to inform professionals involved in sewer management and operation.

Increased efficiency of existing water systems will more than ever require reliable data. Reliable data play a key role in the analysis, monitor, and forecast of water system behaviours as bad quality data may result in an erroneous decision scheme. The data are provided in a large part by the measuring system, in which a sensor is an important element.

Generally raw data may include errors such as noise, drift, outliers, malfunctions, etc. In addition to the possible measurement deviations related to the sensor performance itself, the errors can occur due to various reasons, e.g., the sensor installation problem and the measurement assumption violation. Thus, it is important to equip the data system with procedures that can detect the related problems and assist the user in monitoring and processing the incoming data. The data validation is an essential step to improve data reliability.

This deliverable presents a software prototype for real time data validation including the principles of the validation methods and how these are applied on a full scale wastewater treatment plant. The validation methods are divided into two groups – short term and long term data validation. Short term validation includes methods for:

  • Missing data
  • Range check
  • Rate of change check
  • Running variance

Long term validation includes methods for:

  • Expected mean check
  • Acceptable trend check

Real time data validation is especially important to use when sensor signals are used for automatic process control. However, it is equally important to define and carry out automatic actions, when the validation detects something is wrong. Therefore the prototype includes methods for actions as well.

The most common errors in the input data include missing data, measurement values out of range, peaks (outliers) and constant measurement values (indicating that the sensor is out of order). It is possible to check the data for these typical errors using simple methods known as single data validation. However, even if these methods are simple it is not common that they are implemented directly in PLCs – the range check might be an exception.

Therefore, the single data validation methods are applied as part of the interaction between the RTC system and the SCADA. One or more methods can be applied as data is read from the SCADA, and each method as a result gives a confidence value between 0 and 100 for each data point. If the confidence is lower than a preset threshold, different actions can be taken (avoid using data for control, suspend the control based on the RTC-algorithm and fall back to default control by local control loops, calibrate/repair sensor, etc.).

The single data validation methods are based on the immediate, recent reading, and therefore other methods must also be used to assess the quality of the data in the long term, looking over hours and days (e.g. look for gradual “drift”). These “long term” validation methods are partially based on the same principles as the short term validation methods, but are using data from a much longer period of time – typically looking days back from the actual time. The long term methods also include additional validation methods to distinguish between instrument drift and a real (actual) gradual change in the process variable. These methods include “cross validation” methods.

Data validation is an essential step, required before measured data can be used for automated control strategies. In addition to data validation, it might also be necessary to apply filtering methods before the validated data can be used in real time control, because even correctly measured data can still include a variation that is too pronounced for closed loop RTC algorithms.

Traditionally rain-gauges have been the preferred method for retrieval of rainfall information, however, the extended use of run-off modeling tools, especially in urban areas, has displayed the shortcomings of this measuring method when it comes to estimation of area distributed rainfall.

This document reviews some alternative methods for retrieval of area distributed rainfall – all based on indirect measurement of rainfall.

The Inverse Rainfall Modelling and Analysis (IRMA) uses the in-sewer hydraulic measurement data and an inverse rainfall-runoff-model to compute area rainfall up-streams to the measuring point. Another approach is to utilize the (increasing) number of micro-link used in mobile phone network to produce cost-effective means for regional rainfall monitoring. A more conventional approach is the usage of weather radars, here represented by the cost effective small LAWR X-band radars which have been on the market for more than 10 years. Finally, usage of meteorological satellites for expanding the coverage and time span of conventional ground-based rainfall data for hydrology modeling and weather forecasting is reviewed.

When using radars for establishing rainfall information attention must be brought to the fact that due to minimum detectability of the radar, earth curvature and spatial variability of rainfall, reliable rainfall information can only be expected up to 20 – 30 km from the radar.

The process of calibration/adjusting the radar is important for retrieval of reliable information and it is important to insure that operation and maintenance of the radar is following the schedule recommended by the manufacturer.

This deliverable address the rainfall measurement methods further developed to improve the knowledge on rainfall events in real time.

This report provides a critical state-of-the-art literature review on the subject of optimal sensor place-ment in Urban Water Systems (UWS) It presents a summary of existing sensor macro-location design methodologies intended to facilitate the collection of relevant and efficient measurements in UWS. Model calibration is the focus of this review.

This report introduces the history of hydraulic and water quality modelling for both water distribution systems and urban waste water systems and details the key challenges relating to their practical application. Section 3 discusses model calibration and its connection to sampling design. Sections 4 and 5 discuss sampling design methods and algorithms. Section 5 detailed accounts of existing macro-location approaches and algorithms that are independent of their objective functions. Section 6 concludes the report and identifies future actions.

The report is a useful resource for researchers involved in sensor network design, including those involved in the development of relevant tools.

This report deals with is the development of optimal sensor location methods to provide reliable and useful measurements in urban water systems for the most common applications.

Actual and future urbanization require an optimal management of water in term of quantity and quality, especially runoff water and wastewater. Separate or combined sewers generate sometimes dysfunctions, sources of degradation for the receiving environment and a certain economic cost. It is thus advisable to control the hydraulic conditions within networks (height of water and flow-rate). It is necessary to have a better understanding of free surface flows into narrow channels as they are the main components of urban networks. Measurement devices are under development, but a majority of the measurement systems, which include both flow rate and water quality measurements, present specific difficulties related to this parameter. Focus has been placed on this specific point in this research work.

The objective of the work package is the development and the application of optimal sensor location methods to provide reliable and useful measurements in urban water systems (UWS), both at macro- and micro level. D.3.5.6 deals with making a guideline for both wastewater- flow and quality sensors.

This report evaluates existing methods applied quantifying and reducing uncertainty in models for Urban Water Systems. Numerical models may be applied and aid in optimising the use of existing water supply and sanitation systems but such modelling approaches must consider inherent system uncertainty, which is reviewed in Section 2.

Model development should be considered as an iterative process alongside data collection. As such, sensitivity analysis methods outlined in Section 3 may be applied to reduce model uncertainty and monitoring costs by informing where network monitoring should take place.

A range of real-time approaches have been introduced in Section 4, which may be applied success-fully when coupled with the methods reviews in Section 3 for joint state and parameter estimation.

Although the methods presented here, as well as the techniques and can be considered as generic, the final selection of the methodologies to be applied depends also on the specific requirements of cities, and their data availability.

This report evaluates existing methods to assimilate data and correct predictive errors to improve the application of numerical models in real-time. Data Assimilation (DA) approaches have been applied and developed widely in related scientific disciplines for updating model predictions in real-time as new measurements become available.

Error-correction methodologies are relatively simple to implement and provide the ability to extend beyond DA approaches by reducing forecast error where observational data are unavailable. Such methods can implicitly account for a range of uncertainties provided these uncertainties are manifest in the deterministic model residual time-series derived off-line prior to application.

Joint state and parameter estimation approaches were developed where DA filters have been applied within calibration frameworks. A hierarchical approach for dealing with model uncertainty combining model calibration, data assimilation and error-correction applied at different temporal scales, blending different representations of uncertainty, may provide an optimal framework to account for uncertainty.

An essential and innovative aspect of PREPARED is the development of a software toolbox of methods to quantify and reduce system uncertainty through offline calibration and online data assimilation, to support real time modelling (Work Package 3.6). The toolbox is required to increase the technological capacity of existing water supply and sanitation systems to deal with uncertain changes to system inputs (e.g. rainfall, dry weather flow and water demand) resulting from climatic change. Such demands call for an integrated real time control strategy, supported by monitoring and modelling approaches, to provide decision support in the face of inherent system uncertainty.

Work package 3.6 has investigated methodologies for uncertainty quantification and reduction in UWS models. Existing methods for uncertainty quantification and data assimilation have been reviewed, and their suitability for application in UWS models evaluated (Hutton et al., 2012).

The subsequently developed software, alongside the software manual(s), fulfils the requirements of PREPARED Deliverable 3.6.3, and is presented in two toolboxes: First, a toolbox of methods for offline calibration, uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analysis; Second, an online toolbox for real-time data assimilation and error correction.

An essential and innovative aspect of PREPARED is the development of a software toolbox of methods to quantify and reduce system uncertainty through offline calibration and online data assimilation, to support real time modelling (Work Package 3.6). The toolbox is required to increase the technological capacity of existing water supply and sanitation systems to deal with uncertain changes to system inputs (e.g. rainfall, dry weather flow and water demand) resulting from climatic change. Such demands call for an integrated real time control strategy, supported by monitoring and modelling approaches, to provide decision support in the face of inherent system uncertainty.

Work package 3.6 has investigated methodologies for uncertainty quantification and reduction in UWS models. Existing methods for uncertainty quantification and data assimilation have been reviewed, and their suitability to UWS models evaluated, resulting in a review paper (Hutton et al. 2012). 

Based on the research conducted in PREPARED Work Package 3.6, this report provides technical guidelines in applying uncertainty quantification, data assimilation and error-correction techniques in UWS modelling. The purpose of these guidelines is to provide recommendations of best practice for uncertainty quantification to help end users in their own applications.

A review of existing methods for uncertainty quantification, technical guidelines for best practise, and recommendations has been published based on the PREPARED work conducted in WP3.6 (Hutton et al., 2012). The technical guidelines presented in Hutton et al. (2012) form the basis for this report. These guidelines have been extended based on more recently conducted work, and in this report also extended to consider Urban Rainfall-Runoff (URR) Models alongside Water Distribution System Models. Furthermore, some additional material is also re-presented, where appropriate from Deliverable 3.6.1 and Deliverable 3.6.2. This report is therefore structured as follows:

  • First, an overview is provided in Section 2 on typical uncertainties that need to be considered when modelling Water Distribution Systems and Urban Rainfall Runoff Models.
  • Second, an overview of the technical guidelines is presented in Section 3, which specifies the general guidelines for Model Calibration, Data Assimilation and Model Forecasting.
  • Further details for each of these areas may then be found in sections 4, 5 and 6, respectively.

Monitoring of urban water systems is significantly progressing since a decade. This trend will continue and expand in the future, for many reasons: regulatory requirements, quality assurance for systems operation, need for better knowledge on the functioning of urban water systems, modelling work including calibration and verification, real time control, need of data for retrofitting, renovation, planning and adaptation to global change context, etc.

The increasing number of in situ sensors and the development of data acquisition at time steps of one to a few minutes to account for the fast dynamics of urban water systems lead to very large data sets. The data collected are potentially affected by many sources of errors:

  • Sensor errors (failures, maintenance problems, drifts, wide and sometimes extreme ranges of values, strong gradients, lack of redundancy, problems of coherence at both local and global scales…)
  • Human errors (sensor settings, unit conversions…)
  • Presence and occurrence of unexpected processes, phenomena and events in the monitored urban water systems.

Consequently, data need to be checked and properly validated before any further use, for both off-line and on-line applications. In this deliverable, the focus will be on data pre-validation and validation. Two different tools are devoted to this topic in PREPARED, one for off-line data validation (EVOHE software tool, developed by INSA), and one for on-line data validation (developed by DHI in the DIMS.CORE RTC system).

This deliverable reports on off-line and on-line methods and software tools developed in PREPARED.

D4.1.3 Real time monitoring using Absorbance Spectra and Weather Radar Images (Title changed from: Real time integrated monitoring systems supporting improved rainfall monitoring)

The primary objective for the monitoring, modelling and control platform DIMS.CORE has been the handling of time series of single values from various data sources in a smooth and efficient manner. However, it is also necessary that the platform can handle multidimensional data as efficient as traditional time series of single values. Therefore, the platform can also store time series of ‘objects’ denoted blobs, which basically are any type of binary data.

Blobs can be in the form of data files of a specific type. Some file types are natively supported, e.g. pdf-files and jpg-images. Others could be reflectivity images from a weather radar, absorbance spectra from a spectrometer or a flow field from a flow sensor. With the capability to store and handle these multidimensional data types, it is obviously essential that the data can be displayed and extracted to a usable and readable format.

The software plug-in concept has been implemented in order to construct a standardized way of extending the functionality of DIMS.CORE with regard to supporting reading and displaying of third party file formats and working with the data contained in the file formats. However, the only functionality that must be in the software plug-in is the visualization – other handling and calculations on the data contained in the object could be done using the platform’s embedded script language – for more complex objects possibly extended with a script library or a COM server module, including standardized procedures and functions for calculations on the data contained in the objects.

This deliverable discusses two software plug-ins that have been developed for integrating complex data: the LAWR plug-in for handling DHI Local Area Weather Radar (LAWR) file formats (*.p00 and *.i00) and the S::can Fingerprint plug-in for visualizing the S::can absorbance spectra from the S::can Spectro::lyser, also known as fingerprints.

D4.2.4 Control strategy tool for sewer networks (Title changed from: Integrated Real Time Monitoring, Modelling and Control Platform incl. control strategy tool)

Real Time Control (RTC) of urban drainage system is increasingly applied to optimally exploit the existing storage network infrastructure. RTC is commonly applied to reduce Combined Sewer Overflows (CSO), improving the quality of receiving waters; to optimize flows to wastewater treatment plants; and to reduce floods in urban areas. The evolution of RTC methods requires the integration of modelling tools, sensors and data analysis approaches.

For the sewer network of the City of Aarhus a model based decision and control strategy tool is implemented that combines the major features of state-of-the-art RTC methods into a global generalized risk based approach. This approach allows a better management of the drainage system and the optimization of the existing infrastructures.

The tool is named DORA – Dynamic Overflow Risk Analysis – and is developed under the Storm and Wastewater Informatics project (http://www.swi.env.dtu.dk/), funded by the Danish Council for Strategic Reseach, Danish Wastewater Utilities, Universities and participating companies.

The DORA strategy seeks to minimize the total expected overflow risk in the main storage basins by considering (i) the water volume presently stored in basins in the sewer network, (ii) the maximum hydraulic capacities in the sewer network and the downstream WWTP, (iii) the expected runoff volume (calculated by radar-based rainfall forecast models), and (iiii) the estimated uncertainty of the runoff forecasts.

Monitoring combined sewer overflows (CSO) is both a legal requirement and a challenge for the management of urban drainage systems and the protection of their receiving water bodies. Since extreme rainfall events are expected to become more frequent and severe due to climate change, increasing the frequency, the volumes and even the pollution loads discharged by CSO into the receiving water bodies, this monitoring is becoming increasingly important.

Challenges are associated with the development of integrated monitoring networks, allowing the understanding of the propagation and impacts of the overflows from the sewer to the receiving waters

The research described herein contributes to overcome some of these challenges. A combined network for the on-line monitoring from the sewer to the receiving waters was designed, implemented and tested. This network, composed by both conventional (e.g. thermometer) and sophisticated sensors (spectrophotometric, ammonium and nitrates probes), aims to provide continuous data, feeding and supporting a platform for forecast and early-warning of faecal contamination. It also provides long-term data on the system, essential for a further understanding of its dynamics and response to extreme events, and, ultimately, the development of management plans.

This pilot monitoring network is under demonstration in the Lisbon PREPARED.

Controlling urban floods and managing direct discharges of effluents into receiving waters from combined sewer overflows (CSO) are two major challenges faced by urban water management utilities. Discharges from large cities can have significant environmental impacts on marginal water bodies, affecting the quality of life in general, and recreational activities in particular.

To this end, an innovative, real-time, coupled urban and estuarine platform was developed to support the integrated water quality management of wastewater systems, from the upstream catchment to the receiving waters. The platform efficiently integrates the monitoring and modelling of the different physical and water quality processes from the catchment to the receiving waters, at the appropriate spatial and temporal scales. It provides real-time web access to on-line hydrodynamic and water quality monitoring networks and short-term model predictions, based on a coupled modelling system that includes relevant interactions between the urban drainage system and the receiving waters, automatically compared with available on-line network data. This innovative decision support tool for urban drainage systems management is organized to provide tailor-made, automatic services to support the major operation tasks, drilled-down to the necessary details for decision support.

Based on the platform’s data and model forecasts, an early-warning system is being proposed, supported by alert triggers both on the sewer network information and estuarine conditions. The system is being applied to the Lisbon demo, accounting for the impact of the combined sewage outfall from the Alcântara catchment on the Tagus estuary.

D4.5.1 and D4.5.3 Real Time Monitoring, Modeling and Control of Sewer Systems. (Changed to a common title for the two deliverables: “Enhanced real-time measuring and forecasting technologies for combined sewer systems” and “Real time control strategies for combined sewer systems protecting downstream treatment plants”)

The City of Aarhus, Denmark, has like many other coastal cities undertaken the task of restoring its old industrial harbour area into residential and recreational areas. Further, the city – as a coastal city – wants to use water as a recreational element in the old city center, and has therefore reopened a small cased river draining water from and upstream lake into the harbour – the lake already being a recreational area.

To support the opportunities for recreational use of the lake, river and harbour, the City of Aarhus in 2005 also decided to improve the hygienic water quality in the receiving waters. In more measurable terms this decision is driven by the European Water Framework Directive and the Bathing Water Directive, and the solution should in its design be adapted to the expected climate change scenario:

  • increase in rainfall intensities of 20%, but no increase in the yearly rainfall
  • a sea level rise of 50 cm

This deliverable briefly describes the implementation of the sewer system part of the integrated real time control system for the sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants at Aarhus Water. The system is based on the real time monitoring, modeling and control platform DIMS.CORE, and PREPARED has contributed to research and development of several of the platforms functions, which are now commercially available.

Secondary clarifiers are usually the limiting factor for the hydraulic load on wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). This is specifically the case during rain, when the WWTP is located downstream a combined sewer system. The hydraulic capacity, Qbiomax, of the WWTP is given by: Qbiomax = Vsed * A,

However, also in dry weather situations clarifiers can be controlled to give a more stable performance, and thereby give a higher suspended solids concentration in the return sludge, by using the optimal and balanced return sludge rate as described by the flux theory.

Depending on the design of the wastewater treatment plant – ie. if more secondary clarifier lines are present – it is possible to extend the controller to accommodate for these by including a feedback controller using the average sludge blankets for the different lines to control the distribution of the sludge. A control handle (gate/weir) is thus required downstream the process tanks in order to carry out the right distribution of the flows to the clarifier lines.

Finally, it is shown how, it is possible selectively and quite fast to flush the sludge to a specific clarifier line when the flow at the treatment plant increases due to rain. A procedure, which increases the hydraulic capacity of the WWTP almost instantly, and secures that the controller does not need any lead time for handling a fast increasing flow.

The combined controller has been implemented on 3 wastewater treatment plants (Marselisborg, Aaby and Viby) in Aarhus, Denmark as a part of the integrated control of the sewer system and wastewater treatment plants. Marselisborg WWTP is here used as an example.

Discharges from storm water overflow weirs called combined sewer overflows (CSOs) into the recipient, causes problems due to high concentrations of bacteria, viruses, and parasites that can cause disease in humans and animals, and in general a high load of untreated human and industrial waste and debris (organic matter, nutrients heavy metals and organic micro pollutants) on the recipient. CSOs lead to restrictions on public use of rivers and lakes that serves as a recipient for the discharges.

This report demonstrates the interaction between operation of an existing large wastewater storage volume and selection of treatment process options at Bekkelaget wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in the centre of Oslo in order to reduce the CSOs to the Oslofjord.

The City of Oslo is currently working to implement the Midgardsormen project. This project is covering the central south eastern part of Oslo city. The aim of this project is to be able to handle heavy rain falls without overflow of urban wastewater and storm water via storm water overflow weirs to recipients (The river Akerselva and the inner part of the Oslofjord) close to the city centre.

D4.5.4 Water Quality Warning System for Urban Areas. (Title changed from: Integrated real time control of sanitation systems incl. early warning for WQ in receiving waters)

The deliverables 4.5.1-4.5.3 describe an integrated real time control system for sewer systems and wastewater treatment plants implemented in the City of Aarhus, Denmark. The planning of the system was done using an integrated modeling approach to calculate the resulting and necessary water quality in the receiving waters as requested in the Bathing Water Directive. The very same model complex has been developed further and transferred into real time modeling as the basis for a warning system for events, which are non-compliant with the Bathing Water Directive as measured at an official station in the Harbour of Aarhus.

The warning system, which can forecast the start and end of a non-compliant event, is implemented because the Bathing Water Directive allows one non-compliant event per year – if properly warned – instead of one non-compliant event every four years. Obviously, this has a quite significant influence on the necessary volume of the designed storage tanks – calculated as a saving on the investment in infrastructure of approx. 25 mill. Euros.

The warning system is built on the top of the control system, and this chapter briefly describes the development and implementation of this model complex for hydrology, hydraulic and water quality modeling, which is divided into four coupled parts

  • Rural catchment model driven by rainfall calculating the run off from the rural area as aninput for the Lake&River model
  • Sewer catchments models driven by rainfall and dry weather flows calculating flows, run-off, CSOs and E.Coli/Enterococci transport (wastewater treatment plants as a part of these for E.Coli/Enterococci) as input to the Lake&River model and the Harbour model
  • Lake&River model: flow and E.Coli/Enterococci transport as input to the Harbour model
  • Harbour model: flow pattern and E.Coli/Enterococci transport in local marine area.

The chapter also focuses on communication between the operators and how the actual warning is done based on the modeling results and how information concerning bathing water quality is issued to the public.

Most water supply systems have evolved over the past decades into systems that can supply sufficient and safe water under the current conditions. Climate change will affect these conditions, requiring a more rapid adaptation to new conditions. Rapid response is needed during events that cause an immediate threat to water quality. But also more gradual changes such as temperature rise can be regarded a rapid change with respect to the rate at which a distribution system can be adapted. This section discusses the risks from these rapid changes that can affect water supply and how they can be addressed.

Previous EU-funded projects, such as TECHNEAU, CARE, SWITCH, CityNet and others have produced several tools and considerable knowledge on how to operate and maintain drinking water, wastewater and storm water systems. In Prepared we intend to use and further develop these tools and knowledge on the aggravated and new challenges likely to be results from climate change, both with regard to robustness and resilience.

Important contributions from PREPARED will be guidelines for how to plan operation and maintenance for this new long-term situation, including modifications of elements like CSOs to minimize impact on recipients or human health.

While most previous projects addressed the present challenges, PREPARED will address the upcoming challenges.


 

The project PREPARED investigates tools for planning resilient water supply and sanitation systems. In this manner, the concept addressing the integrated urban water management and investigation of new water resources for Istanbul and Barcelona as an example for regions under water stress was explored as one of the tasks within the project. This report was prepared for the fulfilment of the objectives stated for appraisal and investigation of new water resources for mitigation of water stress.

This report deals with two case studies in Istanbul and Barcelona.

Istanbul is a large city with a rapid growing population making demands on water supply. Domestic water use constitutes the major part of water consumption and the development of innovative water resources are needed to cope with the increase in water demand due to population increase and economic advancement as well as the adverse impacts of climate change. Along these lines, house-hold water reuse practices and utilisation of rain water will reduce the fresh water consumption.

Barcelona suffers from irregular precipitations (serious droughts and flash floods events) and is considered a water scarce region. Different strategies to promote the use of alternative water resources (such as aquifer recharge, seawater desalination and reuse schemes) have been implemented. The construction of a presedimentation basin to store river water before entering the drinking water treatment plant is considered a feasible alternative. This system will entail a quantitative and qualitative homogenisation acting as a buffer and enabling storage of water produced during stormwater events.

The research project aims to analyse the different econometric specifications of the water demand function in order to understand how alternative price regulation systems can influence demand, with a view to safeguarding and conservation (intergenerational and intragenerational) of a scarce natural resource like water. Estimation of the water demand elasticity in Italy is particularly urgent due to the need to modify the tariff policy criteria. For

example, if we wish to implement stronger yardstick competition, a weak form of which is already present in the Normalised Method, it is crucial to assess the impact of this policy on water demand. Also the Water Framework Directive - WFD -requires, by the end of 2010, the adoption of incentivizing tariff policies which comply with the Polluter Pay Principle - PPP - and the “User Pay” Principle with a view to Full Cost Recovery – FCR. Simulation of the effects of alternative price regulation systems is therefore crucial.

For this purpose a plurality of models will be analysed according to the following taxonomy:
(I) analysis of household data;
(II) analysis of municipal data.

For both, Continuous Choice and Discrete-Continuous Choice specifications will be evaluated.

On the basis of both the theoretical and empirical scientific results obtained in the most important international research centres, different dynamic panel model specifications will be examined.

The main objective of this project is the specification of a DSS to analyse the effects of long-term changes in water resource systems under water stress. This DSS supports the decision-making process associated with the selection of the best mitigation or adaptation strategy to be applied to the water resource system to avoid the negative impacts caused by the long term changes.

This tool will be tested considering the water supply system of Barcelona. What characterizes most the Barcelona water resource system are the exceptional drought situations, which in recent years have been occurring frequently involving restrictions to non-priority uses and applying measures to encourage water conservation and reduce demands. Besides, because of the climate change effect, these exceptional situations seem to be worsening with time.

This deliverable tries to approach the potential affection of climate change into water resources availability, focusing on subsurface accumulation and conservation systems. This research was carried out by studying the operation of different representative case studies around the world, and, moreover, it also assessed whether the current regulatory framework in the different studied countries regarding subsurface accumulation issues is actually updated to support climate change.

The review of the operation of the different case studies suggested that there are many problems associated to the current ranges of operation, which should be taken into account for next design updates. It was found no common protocol used in the different sites to assure the correct functioning of the infiltration facilities, as their own experience has been the base to develop preventing and maintenance actions and, also, the variability in geological and recharge water properties is high from one site to another.

On the other hand, it was observed that the legal context regarding subsurface water storage is very restrictive about the quality of the recharge water, without considering local conditions that could vary greatly.

Finally, an obvious disconnection between operational actions and the regulatory framework encourages the fact that, despite more specific regulations are needed to be prepared for unexpected changes, specific studies at local infiltration facilities must be performed in order to assess their suitability for climate change. In this sense, Barcelona’s subsurface water storage facilities are proposed as one of the sites whose suitability should be evaluated.

 

River floods are the most common natural disaster in Europe, and flood damage is expected to increase in the next decades. Among the assets at risks are water wells, which are used to abstract groundwater for the drinking water supply. Flooding of well fields can obstruct the supply of safe and sufficient drinking water, amongst others due to microbial and chemical contamination of the abstracted raw water.

This document provides practical guidelines on how to make water well fields ‘flood proof’. This includes adaptation of the well design, but also management procedures before, during and after flood events. The document builds upon the knowhow and practical experiences of water suppliers in the Netherlands and Germany, and is intended to be used by water suppliers in Europe and elsewhere.

This document presents the opportunities that Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) projects may provide in urban, agricultural and industrial areas and is intended to be used by urban water utilities (such as drinking water companies), horticulture, industries and municipalities. At an introductory level, this document summarizes the relevant information needed to consider  ASR projects. It introduces different ASR applications and two varieties on the ASR concept (ASTR and ATR) . In addition, it presents showcases to illustrate the diversity of methods that can be used. The report is built upon (scientific) literature and operational experiences in the United States, the Netherlands and Australia.

In European countries, 30-95% of the drinking water is prepared from groundwater, including river bank infiltrated water (RBF) and artificially recharged surface water. The use of groundwater has many advantages compared to direct surface water intake. Groundwater is less prone to pollution, peak concentrations are leveled out by mixing of young and older water, and the soil provides a natural barrier against microbiological and chemical pollutants.

Water wells are used to abstract groundwater from the subsurface. Wells have to be optimally designed and constructed for a reliable water supply. Despite good design and construction, wells are vulnerable and may deteriorate due to ageing. Outages or defects can seriously affect water supply schemes. Especially in areas with flooding risks, design and construction criteria of wells are important, as direct and indirect inflow of flood water into the well may cause microbiological infection of the raw water.

To maintain a safe operation, protection, regular inspection and maintenance of wells is important. The aim of this document is to supply information about well condition, methods to detect well condition and methods to repair wells. Focus is on the prevention short-circuiting and leakage of (poor quality) water into the well.

Studies show that climate change will affect all areas of the water industry, including the quality and availability of water resources, the infrastructures, and the treatments that are required to meet the quality standard. Key questions addressed in this work include identification of the expected source water quality changes, the impact of these quality changes to the water utilities, identification of vulnerabilities of current water treatment schemes, and adaptation/mitigation options to cope with the expected future changes.

A survey (questionnaire) was conducted amongst the water utilities in the partner cities. The questions were based on the identified source water quality challenges and the preparedness of the water utilities in coping with these challenges. Most of the water utilities have already planned for actual measures in coping with the expected climate change impacts. Some of the climate change impacts are only considered as probable threats to the current treatment systems. For these and unforeseen impacts, in general there is a need for supplementary processes and/or redesign of the current treatment systems and operation.

The need for treatment scheme modifications or adaptations was assessed in such a way that the resilience against expected or probable climate change impacts is acquired. The report highlights some of the potential treatment technologies as viable options in restoring the barrier that is potentially compromised owing to the climate change effects. The options to redesign water treatment process that include cutting edge treatment technologies, modification of the conventional treatment, and integration of natural systems as part of treatment processes are presented.

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) published a synthesis report in 2007 stating that increasing air and water temperatures, widespread snow and ice melts as well the rise of the sea-level can be considered as clear signs of the climate change. With view of the influence of climate change particularly on the water industry, they have to face more frequent, more rapid and more severe raw water quality depreciation events caused by heavy rain incidents, which could lead to water-borne disease outbreaks. Also higher temperatures and severe droughts, followed by heavy rainfalls, lead to the flushing to the water reservoirs. This may significantly change the raw water quality with rising demand on the efficacy of the water treatment processes and plants and water supply networks. To counteract a possible climate-related negative impact on the quality of drinking water, adaptation strategies have to be considered at different levels. They have to include the raw water quality, water treatment technologies, planning and management of the drinking water distribution networks.

This report provides 6 examples of climate change adaptive measures (to be) taken at water utilities in PREPARED partner cities. All examples are related to the work undertaken in work package 5.2 Adaptation of water supply systems.

Descriptions include a short review of the work undertaken in PREPARED (background), a description of uptake and implementation of the work in partner cities, and concludes with an outlook on future developments and actions at the utilities. 

This document contains the appendixes for deliverable D5.3.1 and is an excellent resource for researchers and other practitioners.

Assessment of potential impacts of climate change on water has been en essential part of the IPCC’s climate change research on Hydrology over the last decades. Regional climate change scenarios have been projected and indicators identified to present the changes and expected consequences. However, the assessment of climate change impacts on urban storm water has not been implemented sufficiently since (1) it has to take into account the changes of local climate and projected scenarios with fine temporal and spatial resolutions for assessment of urban hydrology and the operation of urban drainage systems are yet available; (2) the assessment should also include the impact of rapid urbanization, i.e. the changes in demography and land use, and the adaptation capacity of the drainage systems.

The task WA5.3.1 of the project PREPARED is to model the impact of climate change on urban runoff and resulting consequences. This will be connected to a risk assessment method, considering the hazard that increase of runoff under different climate change scenarios may cause in different types of urban areas.

The appendices document for Deliverable for 5.3.2  include:

  • Appendix A: Summary of questionnaire answers
  • Appendix B: State of Knowledge research programs related to urban runoff
  • Appendix C: Detailed description of SUDS
  • Appendix D: Maintenace requirements of SUDS
  • Appendix E: Example of detailed maintences costs for SUDS
  • Appendix F: Legisltaive context of SUDS in Spain and Norway
  • Appendix G: SUDs modelling. Results of questiannaire and case study

This report presents innovative solutions for stormwater runoff management (SUDS and RWH), which can help to ease the pressure in drainage systems in a context of climate change and therefore, to increase the resilience levels of the cities that choose to implement them.
 
The document examines the current challenges in stormwater management, followed by SUDS and RWH solutions. In the case of SUDS, the document covers different areas: it presents general guidelines for the implementation of SUDS, case studies with experiences from on-site applications, and a review of software tools used for SUDS modelling. As for RWH, the report presents different technologies available, together with the results of an experimental case study and some general recommendations.
 
Finally, the document focuses on pollution related challenges, describing the problems and experiences, and evaluating the use of SUDS as a solution for pollution removal. A separate appendix document  (D5.3.2 Appendices)is available, containing more detailed information on several topics.

This document aims to provide a comprehensive answer to the challenge of redesigning storm water systems in a changing climate. In order to do that, a set of guidelines combined with some practical examples are presented.

First of all, following a DSPIR framework (Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response) several recommendations to develop climate change impact studies are given. Depending on the resources available, simple or more complex approaches can be used.

Then, once the impacts of climate change are obtained, adaptation strategies to solve the existing problems have to be implemented. In this case, the strategies presented can be grouped in two categories: Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) and Rain Water Harvesting (RWH) systems.

These measures are presented in the document, giving special attention to their design, operation and maintainance. In order to properly redesign the storm water systems and following the DPSIR approach, the state of the system has to be assessed once the strategies are implemented. Then, via this iterative process, the system behaviour can be improved, fuliflling the required functioning standards.

Different effects of climate change, like a shift in precipitation pattern, sea level rise, and especially the increase in temperature impacts on insewer processes. Lower solubility of oxygen in the water due to higher water temperatures leads to (faster) formation of anaerobic conditions which fosters, amongst others, the production of odorous and corrosive substances in sewer networks. Developments of the past ten years brought about changes in, for instance, demographics, decrease in specific and industrial water consumption, novel sanitary systems, renovation of leaky drainage channels to avoid infiltration are connected with the trend of decline in dry weather flow, etc. On the basis of these identified impacts on sanitation system, this report provides information of existing techniques about

  • Odour and corrosion abatement
  • Increase in storage volumes/handling of volumes, in particular retrofitting of CSO stormwater removal systems, CSO control
  • Improvement of sewer system: CSO treatment, infiltration detection techniques;
  • Methodology to identify infiltrations in sewer system;
  • Separate sewer: the first flush management;
  • Decentralised solution: controlled infiltration, retention of rainwater (filter ponds, basins, …);
  • Adaptation measures for joint effect of rainfall and tide.

Techniques and methodologies described in the following chapters, are not exhaustive, but provides a good starting point for facing problems related to sanitation systems and adaptation as a result of climate change.

This report describes a model-based planning instrument for the assessment of CSO impacts on receiving surface waters under different sewer management and climate change scenarios. The suggested planning instrument couples a sewer and a surface water model for which boundary conditions can be changed, depending on the studied scenario. The simulated CSO impact is analysed via a coupled impacet-assessment tool. The selection of appropriate model approach, assessment guideline and scenarios depend on the local conditions regarding the sewer system, the surface water type and the relevant CSO impact. Accordingly, the report aims at giving a general overview of available models, assessment guidelines, as well as sewer management and change scenarios, which allows setting up a planning instrument for a wide range of local conditions.

Three dimensional models capable of resolving small scale structures in the flow and how dispersed solids move in this flow offer an attractive tool to study performance of existing combined sewage overflows (CSO's), and how they might be impacted by changes in loads, either in terms of volumetric flow or solids concentration. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models offer the possibility to assess the flow structures and separation efficiency of a CSO before it is build, and to evaluate different possible modifications made to improve efficiency of an existing CSO.

CFD enables engineers to study the performance of e.g. CSOs by providing detailed information about the flow field inside the CSO and how this flow changes in response to varying flow rates and possible changes in design. Thus design changes can be implemented in the models to look at possible advantages in separation efficiency.

SINTEF has been studying the CSO at Frichsvej which has a complex geometry, with the aim to understand its dynamic behavior during filling and emergency overflow. The modelled CSO is an integral part of the waste water treatment plant (WWTP) at Frichsvej in Aarhus, Denmark. Sediment transport was studied during emergency overflow and quantified for three different flowrates. The results will be used to position flow sensors and water quality sensors. The hydraulics of the model were calibrated with the use of wastewater flow measurements within the CSO.

The case study performed by DHI of the Trøjbor CSO in Aarhus clearly shows how CFD modelling can be used to improve the hydraulic and treatment performance of a CSO. In the Trøjbor example, different ways to reduce the amount of contaminants from the retention basin spilling into the harbour during a storm was examined.

Deliverable 3.5.5 deals with micro location of sensors for water quality measurements in CSOs, with the use of CFD modelling. The deliverable is based on the same case study and goes deeper into particle modelling during overflow conditions.

Many and important cities are located near coastal and estuarine waters and the performance of their urban drainage systems may be affected by tide. Climate change effects have been felt in many drainage systems, but most studies were focused on changes in the rainfall pattern. As in old cities’ sewer networks are over a hundred years old and the global mean sea level rose about 1.7 ± 0.5 mm per year during the 20th century (Bindoff et al., 2007), it is certain that the sea level rise is currently impacting many sewer and treatment networks. In Cascais tide gauge, located about 30 km west of Lisbon, Portugal, and in operation since 1882, the current records show a mean sea level of around 15 cm above the mean level adopted in 1938 (FCUL and IDL, 2013).

It becomes increasingly necessary to take into account the rising sea level in the design of new drainage systems and planning the operation and maintenance of the existing systems in coastal areas. This research identified a large set of measures that may be applied aiming to reduce its impacts, namely to reduce floods, CSO discharges, lack of efficiency, energy consumption, risks of asset degradation, and to improve the integrated performance of the drainage infrastructure. These existing measures were classified in: hard structural measures; soft structural measures; and non-structural measures. Most are already well known by the technical community, although it is necessary to consider the effects of sea level rise in their conception and design. Other measures require incorporation of innovative concepts, practices and technologies for the systems management as the use of new technological tools designed to support spatial planning, asset management and real-time operation based on monitoring, forecasting and early warning platforms.

This report is part a) of deliverable 5.5.3. Part a) is supposed to deal with identification of existing/well-proven strategies/technologies/methods for the operation of sewer systems during heavy rainfalls/snow melting periods to reduce combined sewer overflows (CSOs) and the impact on wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs).

Studies indicate an increase of extreme precipitation events for North Europe, including the Atlantic Climate zone, due to climate change effects. Increased rainfall intensity and unfavourable runoff conditions (large city impervious areas) will cause more frequent and longer periods of operation of CSOs in combined systems. Frequent changes between periods of frost and mild temperatures during winter lead to heavy rain falling on frozen ground when there is no way for surface water to infiltrate into the ground. In addition, increased amounts of melted snow caused by an increase of temperature during winter will contribute to extended amounts of water on the ground and in the wastewater systems. In order to cope with the rising challenges of increased amounts of water going to the sewer system, the report tries to identify relevant methods and strategies of operation.

The report defines operation and how it relates to maintenance, and deals with operation of the wastewater system on two levels; system and component level. Strategies, technologies and methods are more closely examined and explained in each relevant chapter.

Increased occurrence of high intensity rainfalls will strongly influence the municipal sewerage system. Combine sewer systems (CSS) transport storm water and municipal wastewater. During high intensity rainfalls the capacity of the combined sewers systems will be exceeded, resulting in the discharge of combined storm water and untreated wastewater to receiving waters. Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) can introduce high concentrations of microbial pathogenes and other pollutants into the recipient. Generally, CSOs can represent a threat to the public health as a result of contamination of drinking water sources and bathing water. Several measures can be introduced to prevent the negative effects of CSOs, e.g. storm water management to reduce the volume of storm water entering the combined sewer network and increased capacity of the sewer network, for instance use of storm water retention basins. A higher capacity of the sewer network makes it necessary to increase the capacity of the wastewater treatment plant.

This report gives a general description of how the treatment plant capacity is increased during high flow conditions at two wastewater treatment plants serving the city of Oslo (Bekkelaget wastewater treatment plant and VEAS wastewater treatment plant). Bekkelaget wwtp will be described in detail. For VEAS wastewater treatment plant a brief description will be given.

This study is focussed on water supply networks, and more especially on water pipes. The water network of the Greater Lyon (F) has been chosen as a case study.

The main question which is addressed is: how water pipes failures (and their consequences that are measured by water pipe rehabilitation criteria) may be affected by climate changes. More precise questions are then formulated:

The first question (Q1) is: is there a weather variable that influences performances and maintenance activities?
A second question (Q2) is: do we observe a variation for this variable, during the observation period?
A third question (Q3) is: what is the effect of this variation on the chosen indicator?
An associated technical question (Q3’) is: how to separate the effects of the aging and the effects of the variation of the variable?
And a fourth question (Q4) is: can we infer a significant trend, for this weather variable, from the observed variation (observed average increase or decrease rate)?
An associated question (Q4’) is: can we relate this trend to the climate change processes?

Project PREPARED addresses the adaptation of the water sector to climate change effects. It has been anticipated that some of the impacts of climate change, such as rises in average temperature and sea level, will only become apparent after many years. However, climate change-driven events are already happening with increasing frequency and intensity. This is the case of extreme storm and rain events and heat, drought and cold periods, which may impact water and wastewater systems. Therefore, in addition to structural adaptations of infrastructures that may be implemented on a medium- to long-term basis, many urban water utilities also need to adapt rapidly to on-going climate change effects.

Diverse scenarios are available for each country and region. In addition, the same climate effects may impact the various sectors and utilities differently. On the other hand, certain climate change effects may impact the infrastructures of all urban water cycle sectors.

The adaptation of water utilities to climate changes has been tackled in PREPARED through sectorial and integrative approaches. The former, which comprised adaptation measures for drinking water supply, wastewater and stormwater systems, were addressed in several work packages. The outputs produced include corrective and preventive measures for drinking water treatment plants, and drinking water and sanitation networks. With this respect, state-of-the-art knowledge and outputs from various PREPARED tasks were integrated and developed in PREPARED deliverable D5.5.5 in the form of guidelines, whose objectives are to support the design and implementation of adaptation measures. Accordingly, the D5.5.5 guidelines herein summarized comprise four chapters:

  • Chapter 1 – Improved operation of drinking water treatment plants
  • Chapter 2 – Maintenance of water supply networks
  • Chapter 3 – Maintenance of wastewater networks
  • Chapter 4 – Operation and maintenance of stormwater systems

For the sake of practical usefulness, adaptation measures, as well as their supporting technologies, methods and tools, are schematically and concisely presented in the guidelines. These also specify supplementary sources of more detailed and comprehensive information, which, in addition to pertinent PREPARED deliverables, include outputs from projects CARE-W, DayWater, TECHNEAU, CARE-S and AWARE-P.

Major outputs of deliverables 5.2.4, 5.2.5, 5.2.7 and 5.5.2 are herein integrated aiming at providing guidelines for improved operation of drinking water treatment plants in climate change scenarios.

This report presents outcomes from an intense research phase in which our partner utility in the Prepared project, Dwr Cymru Welsh Water (DCWW), and other organisations with some role in water management in Wales have been examined in terms of their work towards climate change adaptation.

Climate change adaptation may involve using new technologies, but may equally involve new ways of working within and between organisations, or between organisations and the public. This report focuses on the organisational and social processes through which adaptation occurs in the water sector.

To enable the transition towards a more sustainable and resilient urban water system a new generation of software tools has been developed that supports engineers, planners, stakeholders and scientists in the design and management of the increasingly complex urban water system. The virtual urban systems tool DAnCE4Water (Rauch et al., 2012) (see figure 1) has been developed in D6.2.1 (see report for details) integrating key elements in the transition of the urban water system. It included modules such as the social transition module (STM) simulating the influence of society on the evolution of the urban water system, the urban development module (UDM) explicitly modelling the spatial evolution of the urban environment, and the biophysical module (BPM) modelling the evolution of the urban water system.

In the following text, the software is briefly described in terms of entry points for download. The software is hosted on a homepage of the University of Innsbruck, Austria as being too large and too complex for direct storage.

This report summarises the presentations and deliberations of the PREPARED Steering Board and Project Advisory Committee at a meeting held in ‘Berlin from 29 – 30 September 2011.

The PREPARED, Enabling Change project aims to provide a framework that links research with development programmes in the participating cities and utilities. Technically, the project deals with early warning systems, as well as short- and long-term response strategies for urban areas. The technological and managerial response opportunities in the project are intended to be developed in the context of environmental, social and economic perspectives. Following on from that, the experience gained by the utilities, will be shared with other actors of the water sector in Europe.

As a main component of the project work, information dissemination of public access information occurs through a number of specified activities such as the project website; newsletters; liaising with the city or utility communications departments to encourage local and national media coverage; and supporting the organisation of PREPARED-focused conferences. Through these conferences, the deliberations are publicised. This Conference Report is the first of two reports and reflects the deliberations during the IWA World Congress on Water, Climate and Energy, that took place in Dublin, in May 2012.

This was a conference within a conference and while PREPARED had an independent programme, the demonstration city posters were displayed as part of the main conference. This congress was attended by approximately 1,000 international delegates.

D7.2.1 provides a list of presentations presented at the final PREPARED conferecence on adaptive solutions for water utitliteis, held in Aarhus, Denmark. The presentations demonstrate practical solutions to climate change in urban areas.

After 4 years, PREPARED Enabling Change comes to an end. One way to ensure that the results, recommendation and outcomes from the project are disseminated, a PREPARED publication (Climate Change, Water Supply and Sanitation: Risk Assessment, Management, Mitigation and Reduction) is being developed to provide access to a global audience (scientific research community, end-users, high-level decision makers, etc.) on PREPARED outputs and further encourage the adoption of a framework and methodologies to inspire change and transition in managing water supply and sanitation systems in a time of climate change related challenges.

The PREPARED project confirms and demonstrates the technological preparedness of water supply and sanitation systems of 12 cities in Europe and also Melbourne and Seattle to adapt to the expected impacts of climate change. It shows that the water supply and sanitation systems of cities and their catchments can adapt and be resilient to the challenges of climate change; and that the technological, managerial and policy adaptation of these PREPARED cities can be cost effective, carbon efficient and exportable to other urban areas within Europe and the rest of the world.

The book:

  • Addresses issues related to the management of water, waste water and storm water that are impacted by climate change both in quantitative and qualitative aspects.
  • Addresses many of the Pan-European problems and optimises, tests and implements adaptive solutions that contribute towards an integrated and coordinated approach.
  • Develops adaptation strategies, considering and weighting the mitigation side of solutions to minimise our carbon- and water footprint.
  • Improves resilience to deal with the impact of climate change.
  • Contributes to the development of the knowledge base where it concerns the water supply and sanitation sector.

Climate change is one of the most challenging issues that the world faces: it impacts on every level of human existence. It manifests in either too much or too little water; too high or too low temperatures; and in new diseases, rising sea levels, loss of biodiversity, etc. While climate change is a global problem which requires globally acceptable solutions, these solutions need to originate from and hinge on local action and response.

Adaptation is one vital response to the challenges brought about by climate change. The objective of adaptation is to reduce vulnerability to climate change, thereby reducing negative impact. Hence adaptation, together with mitigation, is a critical response strategy.

The solutions that emerge from the final outputs of the PREPARED project will be used by other cities of the world to form the basis to adapt their infrastructure, management, policy and technical investment programmes to buffer them against the possible impact of climate change. The PREPARED Advocacy Strategy lays the groundwork to get the innovative adaptation results out to the world.

During the 2013 IWA Cities of the Future Conference “Innovation to practice” a session dedicated to the Black Sea countries was organised. 

Black Sea partners in the PREPARED team, from Turkey and Ukraine, presented the results of their work within the PREPARED project.

This short report introduces the impact of climate change to the Black Sea countries and also how the research into adaptation will help the countries involved to better cope with the challenges posed by climate change.

The objective behind the inclusion of a Black Sea event within PREPARED was to involve more Black Sea countries in the work done by the project and ultimately to help and create a co-operation platform for the region.

The impact of climate change is evident; changes to the global water cycle, the melting icecaps, extreme changes in temperature and rising sea levels. Utilities and local decision-makers will need to respond to these changes, while balancing between acceptable risk and justified investments. To identify the level of preparedness of cities to the cope with the impacts of climate change with respect to their water supply, sanitation and sewerage/storm water infrastructure, a methodology to determine the preparedness of the water sector to climate change was produced and tested.

Deliverable 7.3.3 addresses the development of a questionnaire, testing the questionnaire in two demonstration sites and summary of the methodology, gathered results and any gaps and recommendations.

As part of WP 7, IWA is developing and cataloguing a portfolio of material and expert panels from the participating cities and research organisations that can be assembled and deployed on demand. The aim is for the tailor-made portfolio to be used by interested utilities/cities/municipalities both from (required) and outside PREPARED. This supports the dissemination and exploitation of the project to a wider network beyond PREPARED.

This area of work targets the influencers and the decision-makers – whether they are in a political role or in another leadership or managerial role – with adaptation solutions or measures that can be implemented to better prepare their city for future challenges in water supply and sanitation resulting from climate change. Using PREPARED outputs, the platform provided represents vehicles for advocacy and will be encouraging behaviour change for the benefit of sustainable futures. Key people will be engaged to buy into and own the knowledge that has been generated, and be part of moving the agenda forward, and leading change and advocating this in their constituencies.

The members of the PREPARED consortium are recognized major players at the European and international level, and have undertaken successful dissemination including:

  • The operators participating in the project were major utilities, among them two European capital cities (Berlin, Lisbon), who made the project visible to other EU utilities.
  • The PREPARED utilities were asked to provide input to the EURO-CITIES conference in Stockholm in 2013.
  • The participation of the International Water Association (IWA) gave access to 10.000 members in over 110 countries. This provided an exceptionally large target group for our conference announcements and newsletters.
  • The involvement of two major European-based industrial partners Veolia Environment and Suez.
  • Environnement (though BWB, KWB, Krüger, CLABSA, CETaqua) increased the dissemination/implementation pathway at the European and international level. For example, a workshop organized by KWB at the IWA International Water Week in Amsterdam was supported by representatives from Veolia and EUREAU.
  • Technology providers like DHI, Aquateam or SCAN were able to rapidly transfer the know-how generated in the project to tailor-made solutions for the utilities. For example, this was seen, in Aarhus and Oslo, where the implementation of the solutions for real-time-control of urban drainage systems for enhancement of urban water quality is already now seen as successful climate change adaptation.
  • The involvement of applied water research partners like KWR, IWW, LNEC and KWB, gave direct access to the Water sector of the Netherlands, Germany and Portugal.

The dissemination and exploitation of project results and PREPARED knowledge exchange during the project was organised through all project partners at a number of levels:

  • The project was presented to a meeting with managing directors of all Dutch water supply companies.
  • The project was introduced to the Dutch water sector through the H2O professional magazine in the Netherlands.
  • The project was mentioned in a special edition of the professional magazine of the Dutch Water Boards Theme International.

This deliverable provides an overview of the various dissemination channels used during PREPARED.

In this report the awareness and the wider societal implications of the PREPARED Enabling Change project are described. The horizontal issues in the project are addressed and how they contributed to the creation of awareness about the project and its activities and how the horizontal issues contributed to solving climate change induced societal challenges.

Some of the consortiums partners
This project has received
funding from the European Union’s
Seventh Programme for Research,
Technological Development and
Demonstration under Grant
Agreement No 244232
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